INGOT Brokers Australia | Trading Glossary

Trading Glossary

Appreciation
A currency is said to appreciate when it strengthens in price in response to market demand.
Arbitrage
The purchase or sale of an instrument and simultaneous taking of an equal and opposite position in a related market, in order to take advantage of small price differentials between markets.
Ask Rate
The rate at which a financial instrument is offered for sale (as in bid/ask spread).
Asset Allocation
Investment practice that divides funds among different markets to achieve diversification for risk management purposes and/or expected returns consistent with an investor's objectives.
Around
Dealer jargon used in quoting when the forward premium/discount is near parity. For example, "two-two around" would translate into 2 points to either side of the present spot.
Balance of Trade
The value of a country's exports minus its imports.
Base Currency
The first currency in a Currency Pair. It shows how much the base currency is worth as measured against the second currency. For example, if the USD/CHF rate equals 1.6215 then one USD is worth CHF 1.6215 In the FX markets, the US Dollar is normally considered the 'base' currency for quotes, meaning that quotes are expressed as a unit of $1 USD per the other currency quoted in the pair. The primary exceptions to this rule are the British Pound, the Euro and the Australian Dollar.
Bear Market
A market distinguished by declining prices
Bundesbank
Germany's Central Bank.
Big Figure
The first two or three digits of a foreign exchange price or rate. Examples: If the USD/JPY bid/ask is 115.27/32, the big figure is 115. On a EUR/USD price of 1.2855/58 the big figure is 1.28. The big figure is often omitted in dealer quotes. The EUR/USD price of 1.2855/58 would be verbally quoted as "55/58".
Book
In a professional trading environment, a 'book' is the summary of a trader's or desk's total positions.
Broker
An individual or firm that acts as an intermediary, putting together buyers and sellers for a fee or commission. In contrast, a 'dealer' commits capital and takes one side of a position, hoping to earn a spread (profit) by closing out the position in a subsequent trade with another party.
Bretton Woods Agreement of 1944
An agreement that established fixed foreign exchange rates for major currencies, provided for central bank intervention in the currency markets, and pegged the price of gold at US $35 per ounce. The agreement lasted until 1971, when President Nixon overturned the Bretton Woods agreement and established a floating exchange rate for the major currencies.
Back Office
The departments and processes related to the settlement of financial transactions.
Bid Rate
The rate at which a trader is willing to buy a currency.
Bull Market
A market distinguished by rising prices
Cable
Trader jargon referring to the Sterling/US Dollar exchange rate. So called because the rate was originally transmitted via a transatlantic cable beginning in the mid 1800's.
Candlestick Chart
A chart that indicates the trading range for the day as well as the opening and closing price. If the open price is higher than the close price, the rectangle between the open and close price is shaded. If the close price is higher than the open price, that area of the chart is not shaded.
Central Bank
A government or quasi-governmental organization that manages a country's monetary policy. For example, the US central bank is the Federal Reserve, and the German central bank is the Bundesbank.
Chartist
An individual who uses charts and graphs and interprets historical data to find trends and predict future movements. Also referred to as Technical Trader.
Clearing
The process of settling a trade
Contagion
The tendency of an economic crisis to spread from one market to another. In 1997, political instability in Indonesia caused high volatility in their domestic currency, the Rupiah. From there, the contagion spread to other Asian emerging currencies, and then to Latin America, and is now referred to as the 'Asian Contagion'.
Confirmation
A document exchanged by counterparts to a transaction that states the terms of said transaction.
Contract
The standard unit of trading
Counterparty
One of the participants in a financial transaction.
Country Risk
Risk associated with a cross-border transaction, including but not limited to legal and political conditions
Currency
Any form of money issued by a government or central bank and used as legal tender and a basis for trade
Currency Risk
the probability of an adverse change in exchange rates.
Day Trader
Speculators who take positions in commodities which are then liquidated prior to the close of the same trading day.
Dealer
An individual or firm that acts as a principal or counterpart to a transaction. Principals take one side of a position, hoping to earn a spread (profit) by closing out the position in a subsequent trade with another party. In contrast, a broker is an individual or firm that acts as an intermediary, putting together buyers and sellers for a fee or commission.
Deficit
A negative balance of trade or payments.
Delivery
An FX trade where both sides make and take actual delivery of the currencies traded.
Depreciation
A fall in the value of a currency due to market forces.
Derivative
A contract that changes in value in relation to the price movements of a related or underlying security, future or other physical instrument. An Option is the most common derivative instrument
Devaluation
The deliberate downward adjustment of a currency's price, normally by official announcement
Economic Indicator
A government issued statistic that indicates current economic growth and stability. Common indicators include employment rates, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), inflation, retail sales, etc.
End Of Day Order (EOD)
An order to buy or sell at a specified price. This order remains open until the end of the trading day which is typically 5PM ET.
European Monetary Union (EMU)
The principal goal of the EMU is to establish a single European currency called the Euro, which will officially replace the national currencies of the member EU countries in 2002. On Janaury1, 1999 the transitional phase to introduce the Euro began. The Euro now exists as a banking currency and paper financial transactions and foreign exchange are made in Euros. This transition period will last for three years, at which time Euro notes an coins will enter circulation. On July 1,2002, only Euros will be legal tender for EMU participants, the national currencies of the member countries will cease to exist. The current members of the EMU are Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain and Portugal.
EURO
the currency of the European Monetary Union (EMU). A replacement for the European Currency Unit (ECU)
European Central Bank (ECB)
the Central Bank for the new European Monetary Union.
First In First Out (FIFO)
Open positions are closed according to the FIFO accounting rule. All positions opened within a particular currency pair are liquidated in the order in which they were originally opened
Flat/square
Dealer jargon used to describe a position that has been completely reversed, e.g. you bought $500,000 then sold $500,000, thereby creating a neutral (flat) position.
Foreign Exchange
(Forex, FX) - the simultaneous buying of one currency and selling of another.
Forward
The pre-specified exchange rate for a foreign exchange contract settling at some agreed future date, based upon the interest rate differential between the two currencies involved
Forward Points
The pips added to or subtracted from the current exchange rate to calculate a forward price.
Fundamental Analysis
Analysis of economic and political information with the objective of determining future movements in a financial market.
Futures Contract
An obligation to exchange a good or instrument at a set price on a future date. The primary difference between a Future and a Forward is that Futures are typically traded over an exchange (Exchange- Traded Contacts - ETC), versus forwards, which are considered Over The Counter (OTC) contracts. An OTC is any contract NOT traded on an exchange.
FX
Foreign Exchange.
Good 'Til Cancelled Order (GTC)
An order to buy or sell at a specified price. This order remains open until filled or until the client cancels
Hedge
A position or combination of positions that reduces the risk of your primary position.
Inflation
An economic condition whereby prices for consumer goods rise, eroding purchasing power
Initial Margin
The initial deposit of collateral required to enter into a position as a guarantee on future performance.
Interbank Rates
The Foreign Exchange rates at which large international banks quote other large international banks
Japanese Economy Watchers Survey
Measures the mood of businesses that directly service consumers such waiters, drivers, and beauticians. Readings above 50 generally signal improvements in sentiment.
Japanese Machine Tool Orders
Measures the total value of new orders placed with machine tool manufactures. Machine tool orders are a measure of the demand for machines that make machines, a leading indicator of future industrial production. Strong data generally signals that manufacturing is improving and that the economy is in an expansion phase
Kiwi
Slang for the New Zealand dollar.
Leading Indicators
Statistics that are considered to predict future economic activity.
LIBOR
The London Inter-Bank Offered Rate. Banks use LIBOR when borrowing from another bank.
Limit order
An order with restrictions on the maximum price to be paid or the minimum price to be received. As an example, if the current price of USD/YEN is 117.00/05, then a limit order to buy USD would be at a price below 102. (ie 116.50)
Liquidation
The closing of an existing position through the execution of an offsetting transaction.
Liquidity
The ability of a market to accept large transaction with minimal to no impact on price stability.
Long position
A position that appreciates in value if market prices increase. When the base currency in the pair is bought, the position is said to be long.
Margin
The required equity that an investor must deposit to collateralize a position
Margin Call
A request from a broker or dealer for additional funds or other collateral to guarantee performance on a position that has moved against the customer.
Market Maker
A dealer who regularly quotes both bid and ask prices and is ready to make a two-sided market for any financial instrument
Market Risk
Exposure to changes in market prices.
Mark-to-Market
Process of re-evaluating all open positions with the current market prices. These new values then determine margin requirements
Maturity
The date for settlement or expiry of a financial instrument
Net Position
The amount of currency bought or sold which have not yet been offset by opposite transactions
Offer (ask)
The rate at which a dealer is willing to sell a currency. See Ask (offer) price
Offsetting transaction
A trade with which serves to cancel or offset some or all of the market risk of an open position
One Cancels the Other Order (OCO)
A designation for two orders whereby one part of the two orders is executed the other is automatically cancelled
Open order
An order that will be executed when a market moves to its designated price. Normally associated with Good 'til Cancelled Orders.
Open position
An active trade with corresponding unrealized P&L, which has not been offset by an equal and opposite deal
Over the Counter (OTC)
Used to describe any transaction that is not conducted over an exchange.
Overnight Position
A trade that remains open until the next business day.
Order
An instruction to execute a trade at a specified rate
Pips
The smallest unit of price for any foreign currency. Digits added to or subtracted from the fourth decimal place, i.e. 0.0001. Also called Points.
Political Risk
Exposure to changes in governmental policy which will have an adverse effect on an investor's position.
Position
The netted total holdings of a given currency
Premium
In the currency markets, describes the amount by which the forward or futures price exceed the spot price
Price Transparency
Describes quotes to which every market participant has equal access.
Quote
An indicative market price, normally used for information purposes only.
Rate
The price of one currency in terms of another, typically used for dealing purposes.
Resistance
A term used in technical analysis indicating a specific price level at which analysis concludes people will sell
Revaluation
An increase in the exchange rate for a currency as a result of central bank intervention. Opposite of Devaluation
Risk
Exposure to uncertain change, most often used with a negative connotation of adverse change.
Risk Management
the employment of financial analysis and trading techniques to reduce and/or control exposure to various types of risk.
Roll-Over
A rollover is the simultaneous closing of an open position for today's value date and the opening of the same position for the next day's value date at a price reflecting the interest rate differential between the two currencies. The spot forex market is traded on a two-day value date. For example, for trades executed on Monday, the value date is Wednesday. However, if a position is opened on Monday and held overnight (remains open after 1700 ET), the value date is now Thursday. The exception is a position opened and held overnight on Wednesday. The normal value date would be Saturday; because banks are closed on Saturday the value date is actually the following Monday. Due to the weekend, positions held overnight on Wednesday incur or earn an extra two days of interest. Trades with a value date that falls on a holiday will also incur or earn additional interest.
Settlement
The process by which a trade is entered into the books and records of the counterparts to a transaction. The settlement of currency trades may or may not involve the actual physical exchange of one currency for another
Short Position
An investment position that benefits from a decline in market price. When the base currency in the pair is sold, the position is said to be short.
Spot Price
The current market price. Settlement of spot transactions usually occurs within two business days
Spread
The difference between the bid and offer prices
Sterling
slang for British Pound
Stop Loss Order
Order type whereby an open position is automatically liquidated at a specific price. Often used to minimize exposure to losses if the market moves against an investor's position. As an example, if an investor is long USD at 156.27, they might wish to put in a stop loss order for 155.49, which would limit losses should the dollar depreciate, possibly below 155.49. Refer to Trading Handbook for FOREX.com's Stop Loss Policy.
Support
A technique used in technical analysis that indicates a specific price ceiling and floor at which a given exchange rate will automatically correct itself. Opposite of resistance.
Swap
A currency swap is the simultaneous sale and purchase of the same amount of a given currency at a forward exchange rate
Technical Analysis
An effort to forecast prices by analyzing market data, i.e. historical price trends and averages, volumes, open interest, etc
Tomorrow Next (Tom/Next)
Simultaneous buying and selling of a currency for delivery the following day.
Transaction Cost
the cost of buying or selling a financial instrument
Transaction Date
The date on which a trade occurs
Turnover
The total money value of all executed transactions in a given time period; volume.
Two-Way Price
When both a bid and offer rate is quoted for a FX transaction
Uptick
a new price quote at a price higher than the preceding quote
Uptick Rule
In the U.S., a regulation whereby a security may not be sold short unless the last trade prior to the short sale was at a price lower than the price at which the short sale is executed.
US Prime Rate
The interest rate at which US banks will lend to their prime corporate customers.
Value Date
The date on which counterparts to a financial transaction agree to settle their respective obligations, i.e., exchanging payments. For spot currency transactions, the value date is normally two business days forward. Also known as maturity date.
Variation Margin
Funds a broker must request from the client to have the required margin deposited. The term usually refers to additional funds that must be deposited as a result of unfavorable price movements
Volatility (Vol)
A statistical measure of a market's price movements over time
Whipsaw
slang for a condition of a highly volatile market where a sharp price movement is quickly followed by a sharp reversal
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Yard
Slang for a billion.
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